Innocent heart murmurs have the following characteristics:
occur frequently in children (prevalence 50-75%);
have mild 1 / 6 - 3 / 6;
can play in several areas of heart;
can be heard in the supine position, not sitting or standing;
fever usually occur after exercise, accompanying anxiety.
Innocent heart murmurs do not require further investigation.
Pathological heart murmurs have the following characteristics:
may occupy the entire systole;
have high intensity;
to accompany the ripple;
patient may be symptomatic;
heart sounds are modified;
occur in some heart diseases: mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, tricuspid stenosis and insufficiency, and pulmonary stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, etc..
If the heart murmur is pathological need further investigations: ECG, chest x-ray, cardiology consultation, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization.
How to treat heart murmurs?
Innocent heart murmurs require no treatment.
Pathological murmurs will be monitored during regular medical exams and depending on the cause that produced them will be medical or surgical treatment.
Mitral valve prolapse is a disease prevalence of approximately 5% in the population. It is a defect in the mitral valve sealing. The patient may be asymptomatic, may have pain or heart palpitations. On auscultation is found click mezosistolic, telesistolic breath, a sound hard. Treatment consists of surveillance and eventually taking beta-blockers.
All patients with valvular heart disease will receive a short antibiotic treatment when performing invasive maneuvers (dental care, surgery, catheterization, etc.). To prevent an infection in the valves and the development of acute and subacute endocarditis.