The heart is composed of four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. Blood is brought to the heart through vessels called veins sisem open atrium and is transported to the heart and lungs to the tissues by means of another system of vessels called arteries.
At the heart movement is unidirectional: the veins - the atria - ventricles - artery, both contributing to the pressure difference existing in the moment of crossing the blood, and a tight system of valves that open to allow blood flow and close after its passing. On auscultation of the heart are normally hear two heart sounds: noise 1 and noise 2. Between them is a short break (systole) and a long break (diastole). Blood flow to the heart is lamellar.
In case of a turbulent flow occurring cardiac murmurs. Heart murmurs may be organic and functional organafunctionale.
Organic heart murmurs imply the existence of lesions (congenital or acquired) in the valve system.
Organafunctionale heart murmurs are caused by dilation of the heart cavity or valve apparatus in certain heart diseases (heart failure, hypertension).
Functional heart murmurs are due to factors that increase the speed Extracardiac blood flow to the heart (anemia, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism).
How to investigate heart murmurs?
Very often, the heart murmur is discovered by a doctor at a typical clinical examination. Sometimes the patient to the doctor for certain signs and symptoms such as cyanosis (bluish discoloration of lips and extremities), dyspnea (difficult breathing), abnormal heart rhythms (palpitations), syncope (briefly loss of consciousness), angina (heart pain), heart failure (edema, ascites, hepatomegaly).
From the beginning you must determine if heart murmur is pathological or nepatologic (innocent).