Enterocolitis is a disease of the digestive tract infections caused by various bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites. Enterocolitis are common manifestations of the release of numerous chairs, soft, or not accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, chills, altered general state. The events are given either general release infectious agent or its toxins throughout the body, or - most frequently - the significant losses of water and minerals, as a consequence of diarrhea and vomiting.
Among the etiologic agents of acute enterocolitis recalled are:
bacteria - Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, etc..
viruses - enteroviruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk virus, adenovirusuri
fungi - candida, especially in immunosuppressed patients or who have previously received prolonged treatment with antibiotics
parasites - Giardia lamblia (with high frequency of infestation among the population, but not always with clinical manifestations), Balantidium coli, Blastocystis homnis, Cryptosporidium (diarrhea occurs in people with immunosuppression), Entamoeba histolytica (dysentery produces amibiana, found in tropical areas)
The penetration of infectious agents in the body is made orally, through water, food or dirty hands, contaminated. Some vectors (flies, cockroaches, rodents, etc..) Microorganisms can convey and spread over a large distance. Therefore it may be sick in a certain moment all those who have consumed some contaminated food or water from a contaminated source, and those who came in direct contact with them does not observe basic hygiene RULE.
Enterocolitis is always a current medical problem
Summer-fall season is associated with maximum frequency of cases of enterocolitis, but there are infectious agents involved in the illness occurring mostly in winter (Norwalk virus, rotaviruses). Also, the spread of gastrointestinal infection is favored by economic and social factors (the level of sanitation, poor water supply, poor hygiene of individual and collective).
A special case is the acute enterocolitis occurred in people who travel to endemic areas are not required for gastrointestinal infections (so-called "traveler's diarrhea"). They usually become infected by ingestion of food (vegetables, fruits) or contaminated water. Diarrhea in this case may be due to changes in diet, consumption of specific foods area, spices. The microorganisms most frequently involved in enterocolitis tourists are: E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, rotaviruses, staphylococcus enterotoxici, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica. In 20-30% of cases, the trigger remains unidentified infectious agent. Due to the multitude of microorganisms that cause and the possibilities of spreading, acute enterocolitis is always a current medical problem.